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   2021| July-December  | Volume 3 | Issue 2  
    Online since January 12, 2022

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Students perception on resumption of offline classes during the pandemic using college reopening survey questionnaire
Jeba Chitra, Akshita Anoop, Ankita Haldankar
July-December 2021, 3(2):76-82
Context: Due to the CoronaVirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, educational institutions in India have been considering various online methods as part of teaching and learning. When the guidelines to resume offline classes were issued by the government, it was an uphill task in maintaining the course delivery while ensuring the safety of the students and faculty. This was associated with different perceptions and opinions toward the reopening of the colleges of students and parents. Aims: To assess student's perception on resuming offline classes among the pandemic using college reopening survey questionnaire. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was done on undergraduate students from the Health Science University of Belagavi, Karnataka. Subjects and Methods: An Internet-Based Survey of undergraduate students was undertaken. A college reopening survey questionnaire which comprised 13 questions, was developed and e-mailed to 401 health science students using Google Forms to assess student's perception on resumption of offline classes among the pandemic. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire were also studied. Statistical Analysis Used: The perception was assessed as frequency, percentage of responses in addition to Cronbach's alpha values for validity and reliability of the questionnaire. Results: The study showed favorable perception of 80% of students favoring to resume offline classes in the situation of the pandemic, which was consistent across the genders, year of education, and course. The score for reliability and validity was 0.803, which is statistically excellent. Conclusions: Students showed favorable perceptions on resuming offline classes among the pandemic.
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Effect of online classes on physical and mental well-being of students during COVID-19
Manisha Sharma, Pooja Sharma
July-December 2021, 3(2):98-101
Context: The coronavirus has shut down all schools and universities over the globe. With idiosyncratic upsurge of online learning, nowadays, teaching is undertaken remotely on digital platforms by the use of laptops and mobile phones. Many researches have shown that the excessive or prolonged use of screens can impact mental and physical health. The mental and physical affections include stress, depression, sleep disorders, impact on eyesight, postural pain, hand disabilities, and musculoskeletal disorders. Aims: The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of online classes on the mental and physical well-being of students due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Settings and Design: The survey was conducted on an online mode through Google forms. All gender college-going students within the age group of 18–25 years undergoing online classes for a minimum of 1 month were included in the study. Subjects and Methods: The assessment of mental health was done using the Perceived Mental Stress Test Scale (Psychological Stress Test) and the Patient Health Questionnaire, whereas for the assessment of the physical health, the Neck disability index, and the Oswestry low back pain disability index was used. Statistical Analysis Used: Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient was applied to find the correlation between the duration of online classes and stress, depression, neck, and back disability. Results: A significant effect of online classes was found on the mental and physical health of students, 57.3% of population had moderate stress, 32% of population had mild depression, 48% of population had mild neck pain, and 41.3% of population moderate back pain. Conclusion: Students' mental and physical health has been affected as a result of longer duration spent online on laptops and phones for classes.
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Global effect of novel coronavirus on physiotherapy profession: A scoping review
Himani Kaushik, Sachin Gupta, Deepika Singla
July-December 2021, 3(2):72-75
IndiaPhysiotherapy (PT) is a well-established profession throughout the world. The COVID-19 pandemic has transformed several elements of PT and has had a personal and professional influence on physiotherapists (PTs). This article aims to discuss the impact of novel coronavirus (nCov) on physical therapists and to emphasize the relevance of physiotherapy. Health-care providers were severely impacted in every aspect, including physically, psychologically, socially, and financially. Using keywords such as coronavirus, physiotherapy, exercise, and rehabilitation, a search was conducted on PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane database. Forty-eight reviews were identified, out of which 22 were included in the study. PTs have a crucial role in the physical recovery of patients with nCov during the pandemic, which necessitates a multidisciplinary approach by the rehabilitation team. Telephysiotherapy is a new scope of practice for physical therapists to provide health-care services to patients. Exercises improve immune response and mental health while minimizing the consequences of viral infection. As a result, physical therapists assist in the treatment of COVID-19 patients and provide support to the health-care system.
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Soft skills in physical therapy profession: Need of the hour
Santosh Metgud, Pamela Virgil D'Silva
July-December 2021, 3(2):67-69
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Trunk rotation exercises versus sit-to-stand training with step-foot position on balance and gait in patients with chronic stroke
Divya K Babel, Sudheera Kunduru
July-December 2021, 3(2):83-87
Context: Muscle weakness, decreased range of motion, abnormal muscle tone, incoordination, and multisensory disintegration in stroke patients can lead to balance disturbances, reduced mobility, and higher risk for falls. There is paucity in literature whether trunk rotation exercises or sit-to-stand training protocol would be more beneficial for stroke-related disability. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the comparative effect of trunk rotation exercises and sit-to-stand training with step-foot position on balance and gait in patients with chronic stroke. Settings and Design: Experimental study was carried out at tertiary care center. Subjects and Methods: Thirty stroke patients were recruited and randomly included in one of the two study groups. Group A was given trunk rotation exercises and Group B received sit-to-stand training with step-foot position for 30 min, 3 times a week, for 4 weeks. Both the groups received conventional physiotherapy for another 30 min. Balance and gait were assessed before and postintervention using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Dynamic Gait Index (DGI), respectively. Statistical Analysis Used: The Mann–Whitney U-test was applied for the comparison of group data. Results: When BBS and DGI were compared at pre-and postintervention time, results were statistically significant for both groups (P < 0.001). However, when between groups posttest scores were compared for BBS and DGI, results were statistically not significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Both trunk rotation exercises and sit-to-stand training with step-foot position were equally effective in improving balance and gait in chronic poststroke subjects.
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Raising the bar in heart failure rehabilitation
Konrad J Dias
July-December 2021, 3(2):70-71
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Tissue-level ultrasonographic evaluation of hamstring muscle with matrix rhythm therapy (MaRhyThe©)
Varun Naik, Vanshi Parekh, Shivani Patil
July-December 2021, 3(2):117-120
Ideal hamstring muscle length plays a very important role in maintaining posture. Preserving hamstring length or by treating for the tightness of hamstring is crucial to prevent hamstring muscle strain or low back pain. Matrix rhythm therapy (MRT, MaRhyThe©) is one of the novel approaches which is gaining popularity recently for improving function and flexibility, as well as alleviating pain in various musculoskeletal conditions such as frozen shoulder and plantar fasciitis. However, evidence is lacking where the effect of matrix at tissue level is researched. Therefore, the current study aims to determine the immediate and 24-h carry-over effect of MRT on hamstring muscle length, tissue thickness, and regional blood flow using diagnostic ultrasonography that was carried out on an apparently healthy 22-year-old female volunteer. MaRhyThe© was applied to bilateral hamstring muscles. The study concludes that MRT is an effective tool in improving the length, blood flow, and tissue thickness of the hamstring muscle. Thus, MRT can be considered as a treatment modality for muscle and fascia tightness.
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Effect of core and pelvic floor muscle exercise on symptom severity and quality of life in women with stress urinary incontinence
Seemab Khan, Ronika Agrawal, Ayesha Syed
July-December 2021, 3(2):102-106
Context: Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) has been associated with a negative impact on quality of life in women which needs to be addressed. The commonly followed treatment includes only pelvic floor muscle (PFM) exercises with lack of importance given to the abdominal muscle strengthening. Aims: The aim of the study is to find the combined effects of core muscle and pelvic floor exercises on SUI in women. Study Setting and Design: This study was a single-group pre–post study design with females having SUI from communities of Pune city, India. Subjects and Methods: Sixty females between 30 and 45 years of age experiencing SUI were recruited for the study. PFM exercises along with core muscle exercises were given as intervention for 5 days/week for 6 weeks. Outcome measures used were Revised Urinary Incontinence Scale (RUIS) and Urogenital Distress Inventory-6 (UDI-6), which were taken before and on completion of 6 weeks of intervention. Statistical Analysis: Student's t-test was used to study the pre- and postintervention difference in the parameters. Results: Significant improvement was noted in the symptoms of SUI as the value of the RUIS reduced from 7.75 ± 2.419 to 3.90 ± 1.100 (P = 0.0015). The quality of life as assessed by UDI-6 also improved significantly after exercise intervention with P = 0.0010. Conclusion: The study showed a significant reduction in symptom severity of urinary incontinence and improvement in quality of life in females suffering from SUI.
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Immediate effect of mulligan's mobilization with movement on forward head posture and postural sway in temporomandibular joint dysfunction: An experimental study
Rutuja Sawant, Anand Heggannavar, Santosh Metgud, Pamela D'Silva
July-December 2021, 3(2):107-111
Context: Temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD) is defined as orofacial disorders including pain, clicking in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), fatigue of the masticatory muscles, and limitation of mandibular movements. TMJD is responsible for forward head posture (FHP) and postural sway leading to neck pain, headache, and absenteeism from work affecting their quality of life. Management of the dysfunction can alleviate pain and improve work efficiency. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the immediate effect of Mulligan's mobilization with movement (MWM) on numeric pain rating scale (NPRS), maximum mouth opening (MMO), FHP, and postural sway in participants with TMJD. Settings and Design: Pre-and postexperimental study conducted in tertiary care hospital in Belagavi, Karnataka, India. Methodology: Of 59 screened, 39 participants between the age group of 20–40 years of both genders were screened based on the scores obtained from Fonseca's Questionnaire and those eligible were recruited. One session of TMJ MWM was administered and outcome measures were assessed preintervention and immediately postintervention using NPRS, MMO, postural sway, and craniovertebral angle. Statistical Analysis Used: Wilcoxon matched-pairs test and paired t-test were used for pre-and posttest scores of variable. Results: After data analysis, the severity of pain, MMO, postural sway, and FHP showed significant improvement postintervention (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: One session of MWM for TMJ was effective in alleviating pain, improving mouth opening, postural sway, and FHP immediately posttreatment in participants with TMJD.
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Correlation of lumbar core strength with functional mobility in community-dwelling elderly adults
Danielle Malcolm DSouza, Vivek N Kulkarni
July-December 2021, 3(2):94-97
Context: Aging results in changes in individual cells and organs of the body which consequently result in changes in function and appearance. These changes imply a negative influence on functional performance interfering with activities of daily living. The core muscles form an important mechanical linkage providing proximal stability and distal mobility. With age, due to fat infiltration, the core muscle strength is found to decrease. Aims: The study aimed to find if a correlation exists between core muscle strength and functional mobility in community-dwelling elderly individuals. Settings and Design: The study was an analytical cross-sectional study conducted in an urban setup in Pune. Subjects and Methods: A total of 103 community-dwelling elderly individuals were assessed for lumbar core strength using the Supine test of Pressure biofeedback and functional mobility using the timed up and go (TUG) test as well as the functional reach test (FRT). Statistical Analysis Used: Spearman correlation test was used in this study. Results: The study showed a significant correlation between core strength and TUG test as well as with the FRT scores (r[TUG] = −0.75, r[FRT] = 0.72). Conclusions: Individuals with a stronger core require lesser duration to complete the TUG test, and can reach a greater distance in the FRT.
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Correlation between international classification of functioning and quality of life in head and neck cancer survivors in Indian population: A cross-sectional study
Renu B Pattanshetty, Sailee K Bambolkar, Karrishma Karampure, Mansi Karnik
July-December 2021, 3(2):88-93
Context: Cancer is counted as the second most leading cause of death worldwide. Cancer adversely affects one's physical, functional, social, and emotional well-being. Aim: The objective of the present study was to determine a correlation between components of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) and quality of life (QOL) in head and neck cancer survivors in the Indian population. Settings and Design: This was an observational study undertaken in a tertiary health care and cancer hospital for a period of 6 months. Subjects and Methods: Fifty-two head and neck cancer patients were evaluated for their QOL using the Functional Activity of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck Cancer (FACT-HNC) and impairments and disabilities given by ICF. Statistical Analysis Used: Test like Karl Pearson's coefficient for correlation between ICF and FACT-H and N was used. Results: There was a negative correlation between the physical and emotional well-being of FACT-H and N and ICF component of body function (r = −4.25, P ≤ 0.002, r = 27.8, P ≤ 0.046). Activities and participation of ICF also demonstrated similar results (r = −49.5, P ≤ 0.001and r = −40.0, P ≤ 0.003). No correlation was found between environmental factors of ICF and FACT-H and N scores. Conclusions: The study concluded that there was a strong negative correlation in terms of emotional well between ICF and FACT-H and N.
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Correlation between spinal curvature, back and abdominal muscle strength and physical activity in premenopausal women with low back pain
Arati Mahishale, Henna Hakim, Hrishikesh Shetti
July-December 2021, 3(2):112-116
Context: Premenopause is the time before the cessation of menstruation and onset of menopausal symptoms. Information regarding the degree of association of spinal curvature, back and abdominal muscles strength, and physical activity to low back pain (LBP) in premenopausal women is underreported which is useful for awareness, prevention, and optimal treatment. Aims: The aim is to determine the correlation between spinal curvature, back and abdominal muscle strength, and physical activity in premenopausal women with LBP. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four premenopausal women aged between 45 and 55 years were selected based on the inclusion criteria. Three physical characteristics: spinal curvature, back and abdominal muscle strength, and physical activity were measured for all the subjects, and the relative association of each characteristic with LBP was assessed. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short form was administered to all the participants, flexicurve was used for spinal curve measurement, and manual muscle testing for abdominal and back extensor strength was recorded. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and correlated using Pearson's correlation. Results: The mean kyphosis was 36.79° ± 6.41° and lordosis was 33° ± 7.75° According to MRC grading mean abdominal strength was 3.57 ± 0.68 (Grade 3: 53.6%; Grade 4: 35.7% and Grade 5: 10.7%) and back strength was 3.22 ± 0.52 (Grade 2: 4.8%; Grade 3: 67.9% and Grade 4: 27.4%). The mean IPAQ score observed was 1.94 ± 0.64 (low: 23.8%; moderate: 58.3% and high: 17.9%). Conclusion: An inverse relationship was observed between age, IPAQ score, lumbar lordosis, and back and abdominal muscle strength, with increasing age in premenopausal women there was a decrease in physical activity, lumbar lordosis, and back and abdominal muscle strength.
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An educative overview on manipulative therapy
Maneesh R Arora
July-December 2021, 3(2):121-125
Physiotherapists, chiropractors, and osteopaths utilise manual therapy to treat musculoskeletal pain and dysfunction. It is a structured approach to giving hands-on physical treatment within a biopsychosocial framework. Many different hand-on treatments fall under the umbrella of manual therapy. Physical therapists have greatly contributed to the current diversity in manual therapy approaches and techniques. This article on continuing physiotherapy education gives an educative overview to the students and professionals about manual therapy or manipulative therapy.
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Proceedings of international physiotherapy e-conference quadrans-2021 organized by KAHER institute of physiotherapy, Belagavi, Karnataka, India

July-December 2021, 3(2):126-131
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