|Year : 2023 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 51-59
A city-based demographic research on community-dwelling residents of Belagavi, India, about dynapenia, frailty, and sarcopenia
Peeyoosha Gurudut1, Sanjiv Kumar1, Ashwin Patil2, Sanjana Mhetri1, Delia Misquita1, Saiksha Mulgaonkar1
1 KLE Institute of Physiotherapy, KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research, Belagavi, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Radiology, J. N. Medical College, KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research, Belagavi, Karnataka, India
|Date of Submission||13-Jan-2022|
|Date of Decision||25-Nov-2022|
|Date of Acceptance||01-Jul-2023|
|Date of Web Publication||11-Aug-2023|
Dr. Peeyoosha Gurudut
Department of Orthopedic Physiotherapy, KLE Institute of Physiotherapy, KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research, Nehru Nagar, Belagavi - 590 010, Karnataka
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Context: Age-related loss in skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia), decreased muscle strength (dynapenia), and frailty can impede functional skills and cause mobility problems, leading to falls and fractures. There are scanty epidemiological data on the prevalence of these conditions in areas in the Indian subcontinental areas.
Aims: The aim of the study is to create epidemiological statistics on sarcopenia, dynapenia, and frailty in a cross section of community-dwelling individuals in Belagavi city.
Study Design and Settings: This is an epidemiological study on community-dwelling individuals from Belagavi city, India.
Subjects and Methods: Seven hundred and two residents over the age of 40 years were evaluated and diagnosed for sarcopenia as per the guidelines given by the Asian Working Group for sarcopenia which included gait speed, dominant hand grip strength (HGS), and appendicular skeletal mass index (ASMI). They were assessed for frailty with a Clinical Frailty Scale and dynapenia with HGS.
Statistical Analysis: The prevalence was calculated as the frequency and distribution.
Results: A total of 309 men and 393 women were enrolled in the study. The results depicted higher prevalence after the age of 70 years for sarcopenia (20.37%), dynapenia (23.65%), and frailty (5.98%) when compared to those of 40–50 years (11.82%, 14.81%, and 0.14%, respectively). Sarcopenia was equally prevalent among females (30.77%) and males (30.48%). Females (40.03%) had a higher prevalence of dynapenia than males (34.19%) and females (4.56%) were frailer than males (2.42%).
Conclusions: With advancing age, the prevalence of sarcopenia, dynapenia, and frailty increased. The changes become more prevalent after 70 years of age in both genders. Although sarcopenia was equally prevalent in both genders, dynapenia and frailty were more prevalent in women than men.
Keywords: Aging, Epidemiology, Frailty, India, Muscle strength, Sarcopenia
|How to cite this article:|
Gurudut P, Kumar S, Patil A, Mhetri S, Misquita D, Mulgaonkar S. A city-based demographic research on community-dwelling residents of Belagavi, India, about dynapenia, frailty, and sarcopenia. Indian J Phys Ther Res 2023;5:51-9
|How to cite this URL:|
Gurudut P, Kumar S, Patil A, Mhetri S, Misquita D, Mulgaonkar S. A city-based demographic research on community-dwelling residents of Belagavi, India, about dynapenia, frailty, and sarcopenia. Indian J Phys Ther Res [serial online] 2023 [cited 2023 Oct 1];5:51-9. Available from: https://www.ijptr.org/text.asp?2023/5/1/51/383680
| Introduction|| |
Aging is defined as the progressive deterioration of the physiological functions required for survival over time. Sarcopenia, a term coined by Rosemburg in 1989, was defined as an “age-related reduction in muscle mass with little or no dependence on muscle strength and function nor frailty.” Sarcopenia and dynapenia mostly influence the elderly, inactive people, and along with those with associated comorbidities. Sarcopenia has been seen as an inevitable part of aging with severity depending on certain risk factors. Dynapenia, a little less known condition than sarcopenia, is defined as loss of muscle strength as assessed by handgrip strength <30 kg (men) and <20 kg (women) caused by neither neurological nor muscular diseases and not always accompanied by decreased muscle mass. Frailty is theoretically defined as a “clinically recognizable state of increased vulnerability caused by age-related decline in reserve and function across multiple physiological systems, compromising the ability to cope with everyday stressors.” Although sarcopenia, dynapenia, and frailty by definition differ, the diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia also include the assessment of dynapenia and frailty factors. Hence, all three conditions are associated and correlated with each other and most commonly co-occur with advanced aging.
A consensus was reached by the International Working Group on Sarcopenia in 2009 that sarcopenia is an “age-associated decrease of skeletal muscle mass and function.” An updated version of diagnostic criteria was given by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP2), which now includes assessment in addition to the cutoff values for appendicular lean mass or appendicular skeletal mass index (ASMI), muscle strength measured by hand grip strength (HGS), and physical performance measured by gait speed assessment.
Since the anthropometric and physical measurements differ between European and Asian people, the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) proposed a consensus regarding diagnostic cutoff and protocol based on South-east Asian data. Thus, it can be observed that although the criteria for the diagnosis were the same, the cutoff values were different for Asian people. They suggested considering these cutoffs rather than the values of EWGS to diagnose people with sarcopenia in Asian geographical regions.
A meta-analysis of the prevalence studies on sarcopenia suggested that a larger section of elderly people, including apparently healthy individuals, has sarcopenia. Hence, the early diagnosis was stressed to prevent associated adverse morbidities and mortalities. To better understand the trends for estimating parameters and diagnosing the conditions globally for different regions of the world, a larger database on the prevalence is necessitated. At present, a fair number of the prevalence studies on sarcopenia and frailty exists in the Western and Southeast Asian populations. However, in the scenario of the Indian Union, very meager data exist with prevalence studies conducted in the cities of Chandigarh, Dakshin Kannada, and Thanjavur. Further, vast cultural and demographic differences exist within the Indian union which may have an influence on the characteristics of aging that demands more studies to be published on the population of various Indian states.
Hence, the present study was conducted with the aim to create the epidemiological data on sarcopenia, dynapenia, and frailty in a cross-section of community-dwelling individuals in Belagavi, a South Indian-based urban city.
| Subjects and Methods|| |
Study design and setting
The current cross-sectional epidemiological investigation used community settings for data collection. The participants were enrolled by conducting two screening camps in the north and south sectors of Belagavi city in addition to collecting the data from the three old-age homes in the city. Consent to collect the data from inmates of old-age homes was procured from the individuals as well as the manager/caretaker. Publicity about the camp was ensured through newspaper advertisements. Written consent was also obtained from all the participants of the study in their vernacular language before taking the data. The individuals who attended the camp were included if they were above 40 years of age with or without comorbidities, residing in Belagavi city, Karnataka, India, and who could comprehend commands. Individuals were excluded if they had any of the following criteria: upper limb or hand problems which may affect their dominant hand grip; clinically known/diagnosed cases of cervical problems with radiculopathies/myelopathies; history of orthopedic or cardiopulmonary surgeries in the past 6 months; any neurological conditions such as stroke, Parkinson's, ataxia; any lower-limb musculoskeletal condition or any form of physical disabilities due to which their walking is affected; one who is dependent on walking aids for locomotion; who are severely frail/bedridden/terminally ill; and contraindications to bioimpedance analyzer (hearing aids, pacemakers; and any metal implants that cause interference).
Ethical approval was obtained from the Institutional Ethical Committee before the commencement of the study (Reference No: KLE/REC/21-22/692). The conduct of the study procedure complied with the guidelines and regulations of the Helsinki Declaration. The guidelines of the Indian Council of Medical Research were followed throughout the interview and all the safety precautions were taken in the light of current pandemic. In accordance with the study's inclusion and exclusion criteria, every individual was screened. Before the evaluation, all of the participants were given a written explanation of the study's purpose.
Demographic characteristics such as age, gender, diet, occupation, marital educational status, hand dominance, comorbidities, physical activity, age of menopause (females), and physical exercise were noted.
Basic anthropometric measurements
This included measurement of height using a stadiometer, and waist and hip circumferences using a measuring tape both measured with the participant in a standing position barefoot. The formula waist circumference divided by hip circumference was used to determine the waist–hip ratio considering 0.95 in men and 0.80 in women as the upper limit for normative values.
Body composition (using a bio-impedance analyzer)
Actofit Body Analyzer-Pro Max (Actofit Wearables, China) is connected to mobile through bluetooth with a software application downloaded from the playstore (https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.actofitSmartScale&hl=en_IN&gl=US). The height and age (date of birth) were entered in the application. The contraindications for the use of these analyzers were confirmed by the participants such as hearing aid, pacemakers, any metal implants, history of kidney disorders, dialysis, and diarrhea that may cause fibrillations/interference with the readings, etc., Individuals were then made to stand erect on the machine to give an estimated body composition parameter. The machine then was analyzed various body composition parameters including skeletal/lean muscle mass, lean body mass of arms and legs, and body fat percentage to calculate the appendicular skeletal muscle index (ASMI). The report was generated by the software application in the pdf format and was stored in the assessor's mobile [Figure 1]. The appendicular skeletal muscle index (ASMI) was calculated using the following formula:
|Figure 1: Assessment of body composition using Actofit Body Fat Analyzer|
Click here to view
ASMI (kg/m2) =
Physical performance (gait speed by 4-m walk test)
Physical performance was measured by the assessment of gait speed using a 4-m walk test calculated by time taken per unit time (meter/seconds). For this, a 4-m walking path was marked with no obstructions/obstacles using a carpenter measuring tape and two tapes to mark the start and end points. The participants were given instructions to walk at their normal/usual speed from the start point to the endpoint and the time taken to complete the 4-m course was timed with a stopwatch. The speed was calculated by 4 m divided by the time taken to walk (seconds). <0.8 m/s were considered as “slow performance.” A 4-m walk test was marked using carpenter tape and two tapes to mark the start and the end. The participants were asked to walk at their normal speed and the time taken to complete the 4-m course was timed with a stopwatch and <0.8 m/s will be considered as a “slow performance” [Figure 2].
Dynapenia/muscle strength (using hand dynamometer)
A Jamar Hand Dynamometer (reliability is r = 0.98 and validity [ICC (2, K) =0.99]) (Manufacturer: Sammons Preston Rolyan, UK. Model no. 0205010) was used to assess muscle strength. Participants were made to sit on a chair with an erect back (without an armrest) with feet well supported on the floor. For the measurement, the participant was positioned with the dominant side shoulder adducted, elbow flexed at a right angle, forearm in neutral/mid-prone, and wrist in 25°–30° dorsiflexion/extension. The researcher demonstrated the working of the dynamometer before giving it to the participant. Dominant hand measurement was taken with the individual who was commanded to press the handle of the dynamometer as hard as possible. The better of the two readings was considered for analysis. A 1-min break was given before taking the next reading to rule out fatigue [Figure 3].
Frailty (by Clinical Frailty Scale)
Frailty assessment was done using the Clinical Frailty Scale (reliability ICC score of about 0.800) by asking the participant questions on their medical conditions, activity limitation, comorbidities, and balance issues as noted on observation. This is a nine-grade scale created by the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, which states the level of the frailty of an elderly individual. Frailty provides information on the risk of falls in such individuals since the greater the frailty, the greater the risk of falls. It provides an outline to assess frailty and fitness on categories that can be observed without any training. Grade 1–3 describes a person as being very fit to manage well, 4 describes as vulnerable while Grades 5–8 describe the severity of frailty from mild to very severe while Grade 9 indicates terminally ill. This included grading by the assessor by observing the individual and asking questions pertaining to their levels of functions or activities of daily living and matching the descriptor of each grade.
Sarcopenia was determined by the cutoffs given by AWGS criteria as follows: low ASMI either by DEXA or BIA; diminished muscle mass along with reduced muscle strength (males <28 kg, females <18 kg) or physical performance by 6 m or 4-m walk test with <1.0 m/s or <0.8 m/s, respectively.
To analyze the outcomes of the study, statistical analysis was carried out using (Released 2015. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 23.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp). The participants' baseline characteristics and demographic variables were presented as the number of respondents and percentage. The prevalence of sarcopenia, dynapenia, and frailty among participants was determined using various statistical techniques, including mean, standard deviation, and test of significance to compare between genders and age categories. A P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
| Results|| |
Basic demographic details
The study included 309 males and 393 females in total above the age of 40 years from the urban Belagavi region. [Table 1] presents in detail the demographic profile and characteristics with its distribution among respondents.
Age-wise comparison of basic body anthropometric parameters showed the peak of waist circumference in their sixth decade of life which declines by the seventh decade (P = 0.00). The hip circumference, on the other hand, showed a peak in their fourth decade which gradually showed a decline with increasing age (P = 0.01). The waist–hip ratio showed an increasing trend up to the sixth decade after which it showed a slight decrease (P = 0.00). A similar trend was noted with the body mass index (BMI) which was higher in earlier age class intervals, i.e., up to the sixth decade after which showed a significant decline (P = 0.00), [Table 2].
|Table 2: Age-wise comparison of basic anthropometric parameters# (n=702)|
Click here to view
Gender-wise comparison of anthropometric characteristics resulted in waist circumference (P = 0.00) and waist-to-hip ratio (P = 0.00) being significantly higher in males than females. However, BMI and hip circumferences were not statistically significantly different between the genders [Table 3].
|Table 3: Gender-wise comparison of basic body anthropometric parameters# (n=702)|
Click here to view
The age-wise occurrence of sarcopenia according to the cutoffs given by the Asian Working Group of Sarcopenia demonstrated a gradual increase in the number of individuals with sarcopenia from the fourth (11.82%) up to the seventh decade (20.37%) [Table 4]. The overall gender-wise prevalence of sarcopenia (irrespective of age) demonstrated an equal distribution between the genders of approximately 30% [Table 5]. [Table 6] illustrates the prevalence of sarcopenia (as per AWGS cutoffs) across different age categories and genders. There is an equal prevalence of sarcopenia in both genders in the fourth, fifth, and sixth decades of life. At the age of 70 years and above, a significant difference between genders was noted with females at 9.12% and males at 11.25%.
|Table 4: Age-wise prevalence of sarcopenia (as per Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia cutoffs), dynapenia (hand grip strength), and frailty (Clinical Frailty Scale)|
Click here to view
|Table 5: Gender-wise prevalence of sarcopenia (as per Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia cutoffs), dynapenia (hand grip strength), and frailty (Clinical Frailty Scale)|
Click here to view
|Table 6: Age and gender-wise prevalence of sarcopenia (as per Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia cutoffs), dynapenia, and frailty|
Click here to view
The analysis of the age-wise overall prevalence of dynapenia as assessed by the dominant HGS defined by the cutoffs of <28 kg for men and <18 kg was 72.21% out of 702 people. The prevalence increased with age from 14.81% in the fourth decade to 23.65% in the seventh decade and above. Two hundred and eighty-one (40.03%) females and 240 (34.19%) males were having dynapenia (irrespective of age) for women. The age and gender-wise prevalence of dynapenia depicts a consistent percentage (9%–11%) of females being affected with dynapenia across the age ranges. However, among males, the prevalence increased with increasing age [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6].
The severity of frailty as per the Clinical Frailty Scale showed that with increasing age, a greater number of respondents became frailer indicating an increased risk of falls. The overall gender-wise prevalence (irrespective of age) for frailty indicated that women (4.56%) have more frailty as compared to men (2.42%). Age-wise analysis of frailty prevalence showed a significant rise during the seventh decade and above of life with 5.98% while the prevalence in the remaining age groups ranged from 0.14% to 0.57%. The gender-wise comparison during different age categories showed equal frailty grades in the fourth to sixth decade. During the life of 70 years and above, frailty occurrence increased significantly in both genders [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6].
To summarize, the results showed an overall prevalence of sarcopenia of 61.25%, 74.23% of dynapenia, and 6.97% of frailty considering 702 respondents in total. Irrespective of age, males, and females were equally sarcopenic. Across all age groups, women had higher dynapenic levels than men. Only in the seventh decade did fragility problems emerge, with females being more fragile than males. Sarcopenia and dynapenia are much more common throughout the seventh decade of life than in the earlier age groups.
| Discussion|| |
The present cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate epidemiological details of sarcopenia, dynapenia, and frailty with aging on anthropometric parameters, lean body mass, appendicular skeletal muscle index, muscle strength, and physical functional capacity in men and women of Belagavi urban city, India, and to compare the data between the genders.
Sarcopenia is an age-related reduction in muscle mass that is strongly associated with muscle strength and function or frailty. This condition has a well-established association with falls, frailty, fractures, functional disabilities, dependency on activities of daily living, and eventually early mortality., The European working group on sarcopenia in older people (EWGSOP) provided criteria for the clinical diagnosis of sarcopenia along with its subclasses in 2018. EWGSOP updated and revised the cutoffs which aim to help health-care professionals to identify sarcopenia and its risks as well as initiate primary preventive measures or early intervention. However, considering the differences in body structure, diet type, physical culture, and level of physical activity among Asians and Caucasians, the criteria/cutoffs of diagnosing sarcopenia as given by EWGSOP may not be applicable to the demographic features of Asian people. Hence, the AWGS provided consensus with new cutoffs for the diagnosis of sarcopenia in the Asian population. Further, the Indian Union is the second most populous country in the world with the size of the elderly population increasing over time having 10.1% in 2021 with approximately 138 million elderly persons with an estimated increase to 13.1% in 2031. Since India is a vast country, the demographic characteristics of individuals vary from north to south and east to west. Belagavi is one such urban city located in south India in the province of Karnataka, with around 7-lakh population of which the elderly population comprises about 7% of the total population. Hence, data need to be created among different sects/geographical regions about the prevalence or occurrence of sarcopenia, frailty, and dynapenia.
A study was conducted in Singapore to define the sarcopenia normative values among community-dwelling persons for individuals above 21 years, by applying AWGS-2019 criteria and compared with EWGSOP criteria. The authors concluded that younger adults have a chance of developing sarcopenia as well as created cutoffs for diagnosing the same. Another study was conducted comparing the diagnostic cutoffs as per EWGSOP and AWGS in an urban city in North India. The authors concluded that Indians have lower muscle mass and muscle strength and hence do not use western cutoffs to diagnose sarcopenia in Indians. Hence, in the present study, diagnostic cutoffs of ASWG were employed to study the prevalence of sarcopenia.
In this present study, the results depicted the overall prevalence of sarcopenia as 61.25%. Based on diagnostic cutoffs developed by the authors, an epidemiological investigation in the Indian city of Chandigarh with 804 participants over the age of 21 revealed that the prevalence of “probable sarcopenia,” “sarcopenia,” and “severe sarcopenia” was 14.6%, 3.2%, and 2.3%, respectively. The authors went on to compare the prevalence of sarcopenia and its subtypes as per AWGS-2019 against the cutoffs created by the authors, showing a higher prevalence of sarcopenia (6.7%) but a similar prevalence for probable sarcopenia (14.9%). The higher prevalence of sarcopenia in the present study could be due to the fact that the age group included was above 40 years as against 21 years in the Chandigarh study and due to the reason that the present study did not classify sarcopenia in different subcategories. Further, diagnostic cutoffs used in the present study were as per the Asian working group of Sarcopenia cutoffs. Another factor for the higher prevalence noted in the present study could be due to the exhaustive nature of the exclusion criteria of participants included in the Chandigarh-based study. Another hospital-based study reported that the prevalence of sarcopenia is to be 15.3% in senior males and 20.5% in elderly females, based only on low total skeletal muscle index, in comparison to very few younger participants as reference. However, another study that used Caucasian diagnostic and study-based cutoffs to find the prevalence of sarcopenia had 32.6% and 15% of prevalence only in women categorized as premenopausal (<50 years) and postmenopausal (>50 years) age group.
The results of the present study showed that with advancing age, there is an increase in the prevalence of sarcopenia with a decline in the parameters by the seventh decade. Similar findings were noted in a study among South India's rural elderly, where 14.2% had sarcopenia and also in a study conducted in an urban-based north Indian city (3.2%). In a study in Thanjavur, India, one in five relatively healthy women had a loss of muscle mass, and 7.6% of women had a loss of muscle mass and strength. A study by Lee and Park to evaluate the prevalence of sarcopenia, pre-sarcopenia, and severe sarcopenia in healthy Korean elderly women over the age of 65 years reported that aging also accelerated the onset of sarcopenia. In a study in Singapore by Pang et al., to define the sarcopenia normative values among community-dwelling persons for individuals above 21 years, it was found that using AWGS-2019 criteria, sarcopenia was more prevalent in the 60+ age group (32.2%). These results were in line with the findings of the present study.
The gender-wise comparison for the prevalence of sarcopenia showed that males are more affected by sarcopenia when compared to females at the age of 70 years and above. The results are in consensus with a previous study conducted in Chandigarh where 4.7% of men and 2.1% of females were found to be sarcopenic. Although when compared to other studies in Dakshina Kannada (11.8% men and 88.2% women) and Bhubaneswar, Odisha (15.3%, 20.5%), it was seen that females were more affected than males. However, in the present study, the overall prevalence comparison between the genders showed equal distribution.
Frailty develops with age and is linked to a higher chance of health diseases, as well as a person's risk of falling, having balance problems, and having physical limitations. In the present study, frailty was seen to reach its peak in the seventh decade (6.97%) and was seen as more severe in women (2.41%) than men (4.56%). The prevalence of frailty in the present study was 0.14% in the fourth decade with an ascending pattern seen with advancing age. A research project for adults aged 50+ years by Biritwum et al. aimed to find the prevalence of frailty and impairment in older adults, as well as the variables that contribute to it. In China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa as part of the study on global aging and adult health Wave 1, a frailty index was created based on the percentage of deficits in 40 variables, and disability was evaluated using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. The finding showed that India had the highest percentage (55.5%). Among all nations, frailty and disability rose with age and were more prevalent in women. In the present study too, a similar finding was noted, but frailty was graded using the Clinical Frailty Scale instead of a frailty index. Another comprehensive assessment of the current research on the relationship between dietary status and frailty syndrome in older persons was conducted. Malnutrition and/or the risk of malnutrition and frailty have been linked, according to a study that examined the relationship between the mini-nutritional assessment and frailty. However, in the present study, malnutrition factor was not considered.
Dynapenia is a condition of age-related muscle strength loss that increases the risk for mortality and everyday daily activities limitations. The prevalence of dynapenia was higher at 74.23% in the present study. The findings are in consensus with the results of a study done in the urban areas of Brazil, including 387 hospitalized elderly people with the aim to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and dynapenia, as well as to find which risk factors are linked to the senior population based on HGS that was used to test muscle strength. It was also seen that the prevalence of dynapenia in men and women was 52.4% and 38.2%. However, in the present study, there were no significant gender differences noted. A cross-sectional study by Gracia Alfaro was done in postmenopausal women aged 50–84 years to find how common dynapenia is in them, as well as the factors that contribute to poor dominant handgrip strength. The results showed that dynapenia was found in 31.3% of women, while women over 65 years had significantly decreased hand grip (P = 0.001). Similarly, in the present study, we noted that with advancing age, HGS reduced (seventh decade 91.53%). A study by Nebuloni et al. showed an association between diabetes and low muscular strength and found that diabetes increased the chance of dynapenia in both sexes while in the present study, a comparison with specific comorbidities and dynapenia was not done since this association has been already well established in the literature.
The present study had a few limitations. First, for the assessment and calculation of ASMI, BIA was used against the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry which was due to pricier rates and the big budget involved, and the study was self-funded. Second, the sarcopenia diagnosis was not categorized as probable, sarcopenia, or severe sarcopenia. In future, comparative data for the prevalence of sarcopenia in rural and urban populations to find if a geographical area can influence body composition parameters can be considered. More studies need to be conducted in other parts/sects of the Indian geographical regions to better understand the condition. It can be also used as a baseline for any future interventions to reduce sarcopenia.
| Conclusion|| |
The results showed an overall prevalence of sarcopenia of 61.25%, 74.23% of dynapenia, and 6.97% of frailty considering 702 respondents in total. Irrespective of age, males, and females were equally sarcopenic. In all age categories, women were more dynapenic than men. Frailty issues arise only during the sevent decade of life and women are more fragile than men counterparts. The seventh decade of life saw a considerable rise in the prevalence of sarcopenia and dynapenia.
As age advances, individuals are more susceptible to sarcopenia, dynapenia, and frailty which have been linked to the loss of physical function and dependence on activities of daily living. By creating the baseline data, we can know the seriousness of the condition and work to prevent associated complications such as mortality, falls, and fractures from occurring by initiating early intervention.
We are grateful to the old-age homes for consenting and participating in the study. We would like to thank Rotary Club of South Belagavi for conducting the camp and helping us to collect data. We wish to thank the statistician, Mrs. Manjiri Desai, and her team from D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Kolhapur, for helping us with the statistical analysis of the study.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Rosenberg IH. Sarcopenia: Origins and clinical relevance. J Nutr 1997;127:990S-1S.
Neves T, Ferriolli E, Lopes MB, Souza MG, Fett CA, Fett WC. Prevalence and factors associated with sarcopenia and dynapenia in elderly people. J Frailty Sarcopenia Falls 2018;3:194-202.
Xue QL. The frailty syndrome: Definition and natural history. Clin Geriatr Med 2011;27:1-15.
Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Baeyens JP, Bauer JM, Boirie Y, Cederholm T, Landi F, et al.
Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis: Report of the European working group on sarcopenia in older people. Age Ageing 2010;39:412-23.
Chen LK, Woo J, Assantachai P, Auyeung TW, Chou MY, Iijima K, et al.
Asian working group for sarcopenia: 2019 consensus update on sarcopenia diagnosis and treatment. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2020;21:300-7.e2.
Shafiee G, Keshtkar A, Soltani A, Ahadi Z, Larijani B, Heshmat R. Prevalence of sarcopenia in the world: A systematic review and meta- analysis of general population studies. J Diabetes Metab Disord 2017;16:21.
Pang BW, Wee SL, Lau LK, Jabbar KA, Seah WT, Ng DH, et al.
Prevalence and associated factors of sarcopenia in Singaporean adults-the Yishun study. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021;22:885.e10.
Pal R, Aggarwal A, Singh T, Sharma S, Khandelwal N, Garg A, et al.
Diagnostic cut-offs, prevalence, and biochemical predictors of sarcopenia in healthy Indian adults: The sarcopenia-Chandigarh urban bone epidemiological study (Sarco-CUBES). Eur Geriatr Med 2020;11:725-36.
Shaikh N, Harshitha R, Bhargava M. Prevalence of sarcopenia in an elderly population in rural South India: A cross-sectional study. F1000Res 2020;9:175.
Kendhapedi KK, Devasenapathy N. Prevalence and factors associated with frailty among community-dwelling older people in rural Thanjavur district of South India: A cross-sectional study. BMJ Open 2019;9:e032904.
Church S, Rogers E, Rockwood K, Theou O. A scoping review of the clinical frailty scale. BMC Geriatr 2020;20:393.
Beaudart C, Zaaria M, Pasleau F, Reginster JY, Bruyère O. Health outcomes of sarcopenia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 2017;12:e0169548.
Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Sayer AA. Sarcopenia. Lancet 2019;393:2636-46.
Mohanty L, Sahoo D. Prevalence and risk factors of sarcopenia: A study in a tertiary care center. Int J Adv Med 2016;3:364-7.
Marwaha RK, Garg MK, Bhadra K, Mithal A, Tandon N. Assessment of lean (muscle) mass and its distribution by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in healthy Indian females. Arch Osteoporos 2014;9:186.
Lee ES, Park HM. Prevalence of sarcopenia in healthy Korean elderly women. J Bone Metab 2015;22:191-5.
Biritwum RB, Minicuci N, Yawson AE, Theou O, Mensah GP, Naidoo N, et al.
Prevalence of and factors associated with frailty and disability in older adults from China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa. Maturitas 2016;91:8-18.
Lorenzo-López L, Maseda A, de Labra C, Regueiro-Folgueira L, Rodríguez-Villamil JL, Millán-Calenti JC. Nutritional determinants of frailty in older adults: A systematic review. BMC Geriatr 2017;17:108.
Clark BC, Manini TM. Sarcopenia =/= dynapenia. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2008;63:829-34.
García-Alfaro P, García S, Rodríguez I, Pérez-López FR. Handgrip strength, dynapenia, and related factors in postmenopausal women. Menopause 2021;29:16-22.
Nebuloni CC, Máximo RO, de Oliveira C, Alexandre TD. Uncontrolled diabetes as an associated factor with dynapenia in adults aged 50 years or older: Sex differences. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2020;75:1191-7.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]