• Users Online: 190
  • Print this page
  • Email this page


 
 
Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 127-132

Maternal and neonatal outcomes in hypertensive disorders during pregnancy: A hospital-based study


1 Department of OBG Nursing , KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research, Institute of Nursing Sciences, Belagavi, Karnataka, India
2 Department of OBG, JNMC, Belagavi, Karnataka, India

Date of Submission12-Jul-2022
Date of Decision28-Nov-2022
Date of Acceptance13-Dec-2022
Date of Web Publication19-Jan-2023

Correspondence Address:
Mrs. Uma Kole
KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research, Institute of Nursing Sciences, Nehru Nagar, Belagavi, Karnataka
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijptr.ijptr_111_22

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Context: Pregnancy is a physiological phenomenon, and each pregnancy is unique and valuable in its own way. Hypertensive diseases during pregnancy begin throughout pregnancy and disappear entirely after birth. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP), including pregnancy-induced hypertension (HTN), chronic HTN (CHTN), (superimposed) preeclampsia, and eclampsia, are responsible for increased perinatal morbidity and mortality.
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and perinatal effects in women with hypertensive disease during pregnancy.
Setting and Design: Hospital based cross section study was conducted on pregnant women.
Methods and Materials: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out from September 2019 to August 2021 on women whose pregnancies were complicated by HTN disorders. Mothers of the baby suffering from systemic diseases were excluded from the study.
Statistical analysis used: Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was conducted.
Results: In the present study results the prevalence of gestational HTN at 8.49%, preeclampsia at 18.10%, severe preeclampsia at 8.75%, and CHTN was 2.28%. It was shown that the prevalence of hypertensive disease is 38%. A significant difference was found between the maternal age group of mothers suffering from HTN disorders during pregnancy with mean gestational age in weeks F = 124.6477, P = 0.0001 at a 5% level. Furthermore, a significant statistical difference was observed with different maternal age groups having different mean Apgar scores at 1 min with F = 81.0233, P = 0.0001.
Conclusion: Prenatal HTN is one of the leading causes of maternal and neonatal death. Despite having all of the resources and several government programs in both urban and rural areas, many women suffer from HDP in both locations (rural and urban). Hence, management, as well as awareness among pregnant women regarding hypertensive diseases in pregnancy, is required.

Keywords: Eclampsia, Hypertensive disorders, Perinatal outcome, Preeclampsia, Pregnancy induced hypertension, Pregnancy


How to cite this article:
Kole U, Raddi S, Dalal A. Maternal and neonatal outcomes in hypertensive disorders during pregnancy: A hospital-based study. Indian J Phys Ther Res 2022;4:127-32

How to cite this URL:
Kole U, Raddi S, Dalal A. Maternal and neonatal outcomes in hypertensive disorders during pregnancy: A hospital-based study. Indian J Phys Ther Res [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Feb 1];4:127-32. Available from: https://www.ijptr.org/text.asp?2022/4/2/127/368046




  Introduction Top


Pregnancy is a physiological phenomenon, and each pregnancy is unique and valuable in its own way. Hypertensive diseases during pregnancy begin throughout pregnancy and disappear entirely after birth.[1] Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP), including pregnancy-induced hypertension (HTN), chronic HTN (CHTN), (superimposed) preeclampsia, and eclampsia, are responsible for increased perinatal morbidity and mortality.[2]

Preterm deliveries are caused by almost 8%–10% of HDP,[3] and premature birth is recorded by 50% of women with severe preeclampsia or eclampsia.[4] Preeclampsia and eclampsia are the leading causes of perinatal fatalities in underdeveloped nations, accounting for 25% of all cases.[5] Many research studies on maternal and neonatal problems are conducted in developed nations.

The incidence of hypertensive disorders is outweighed in developing countries.[6] The etiopathogenesis of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy is vasospasm and endothelial dysfunction as a consequence of uteroplacental blood flow. This results in decreased placental perfusion, leading to decreased supply of oxygen and nutrients necessary for the growth and development of the fetus and well-being. This directly increases the incidence of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and low birth weight, and so does the perinatal mortality and morbidity. Decreased perfusion of major organs can cause brain edema, bleeding, and seizures are a risk for mothers.[7]

For any disease process to be prevented, methods for identifying those who are highly susceptible to the disorder must be available. Despite the fact that numerous clinical and biochemical tests have been proposed for the early detection or prediction of preeclampsia, the majority of them are still either too costly or sophisticated to be widely utilized in the majority of developing countries. Currently, there is no preeclampsia screening test available that is both accurate and affordable and which can be suggested for use in the majority of developing nations. There is insufficient evidence to support the widespread use of uterine artery Doppler and first-trimester maternal blood indicators for the early diagnosis of preeclampsia, particularly in settings with limited resources.[8]

Furthermore, there is a lack of thorough epidemiological data on prenatal mortality and morbidity in underdeveloped nations, particularly in rural regions. Health improvements cannot be assessed without precise population data. Furthermore, without proper vital registration centers, rates are frequently underestimated. Existing Indian health registration systems have been unable to capture all pregnancies and their outcomes, particularly in rural regions where the majority of Indians live.[9] Inequities in health-care facilities between urban and rural regions may be responsible for a newborn death rate differential of 47–370 per 1000, which is connected with hypertensive problems in pregnancy.[10] In contrast, the incidence and risk of adverse perinatal outcomes from hypertensive disease during pregnancy vary by country, population, and race/geographic location. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and perinatal effects in women with hypertensive disease during pregnancy.


  Subjects and Methods Top


A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out from September 2019 to August 2021 on women whose pregnancies were complicated by HTN disorders. Mothers of the baby suffering from systemic diseases were excluded from the study.

  • Gestational HTN was diagnosed in hypertensive women over 20 weeks gestation with no development of proteinuria or systemic evidence of preeclampsia
  • CHTN was diagnosed in hypertensive women before pregnancy or <28 weeks of gestation
  • Preeclampsia is defined as women with blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg, with or without proteinuria at least twice at 4-h intervals at 28 weeks of gestation.


Eclampsia is diagnosed when a seizure occurs in a woman with high blood pressure, which is not thought to be due to any other cause.

Data collection

Face-to-face interviews were conducted at tertiary care hospitals in Belagavi city. Data were collected on demographic characteristics, maternal age, educational qualification, registered cases (from the first visit), occupation, parity, gestational age (GA), weight gain, mode of delivery, birth weight, and Apgar score.


  Results Top


Results revealed the prevalence of gestational HTN (GHTN) at 8.49%, preeclampsia at 18.10%, severe preeclampsia at 8.75%, and CHTN at 2.28%. The study found out the prevalence of hypertensive disease is 38% [Table 1].
Table 1: Prevalence of evidence of hypertension

Click here to view


According to the findings around 12 per 1000 live births/births of perinatal mortality is observed among women suffering from hypertensive disorders which were avoidable with proper prenatal monitoring and care.

[Table 2] revealed that a statistical difference was found with birth weight as compared to the maternal age group of mothers suffering from HTN disorders during pregnancy F = 3.8459, P = 0.0092, mean Apgar score at 1 min and at 5 min F = 81.0233, P = 0.001 and F = 63.5466 P = 0.001, GA in weeks F = 124.6477, P = 0.0001, and mean placental weight F = 24.2539, P = 0.0001 at 5% level.
Table 2: Distribution of perinatal mortality

Click here to view


[Table 3] revealed the association between demographic profiles with the prevalence of evidence of HTN.
Table 3: Comparison of maternal age groups with birth weight, gestational age, Apgar, and placental weight by one-way ANOVA

Click here to view


Considering the maternal age group out of 783, between 18 and 21 years of age 26.17% (78) were suffering from GHTN, 25.67% (163) had preeclampsia, 25.08% (77) had eclampsia, and 11.25% (9) were suffering from CHTN.

The association between maternal age and the prevalence of hypertensive disorders during pregnancy was statistically significant with Chi-square – 43.3900, P = 0.0001. Similarly, a statistically significant association was found between the area of residence and the prevalence of hypertensive disorders during pregnancy.

The association between an obstetrical score of a mother and the prevalence of hypertensive disorders was statistically significant with Chi-square – 20.0310, P = 0.0001. The association between religion and the prevalence of hypertensive disorders during pregnancy is statistically significant with Chi-square – 28.2040, P = 0.0300. The association between the type of family and prevalence of hypertensive disorders during pregnancy was found statistically significant with Chi-square – 40.1700, P = 0.0001 [Table 4].
Table 4: Association between demographic profile with the prevalence of evidence of hypertension

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


In the present study, the prevalence of HDP is 38%. It was observed that there were 8.49% (298) of mothers suffering from gestational HTN, 18.10% (635) and 8.75% (307) had preeclampsia and preeclampsia, and 2.28% (80) had CHTN. A study done by Mehta et al. found a 6.9% of prevalence.[11] Subki et al. reported a prevalence of gestation HTN at 29.5%, preeclampsia at 54.9%, and eclampsia at 8%.[12]

In our study, it was shown that birth weight is much lower at a younger age – 22 to 25 years – than it is at a later age (26 to 29 years). Panda et al. reported findings that were comparable concerning both young and elderly mothers' significant perinatal mortality with low birth weight problems.[13]

It was shown that preterm or extremely preterm births accounted for nearly three-fourths of perinatal mortality (61%) in women with the antepartum start of HDP, which was statistically significant with P = 0.0092. According to Endeshaw and Berhan's report, 71% of all perinatal fatalities in women with HDP were in preterm or extremely preterm deliveries.[14] Neonatal morbidity was higher in women with severe preeclampsia; according to Panda et al.,[13] the majority of the difficulties were due to premature births. It follows that HDP most likely exposed a number of infants to preterm birth and associated problems. Cincotta RB and Brennecke[15] claim that women with HDP are more likely to give birth prematurely. Reported that women with HDP are more likely to birth their babies prematurely. A higher risk of perinatal mortality in infants with prenatal HDP, as described by Chhabra and Gandhi,[16] may be congruent with the finding of a strong association between lower GA, low birth weight, and perinatal death.

The findings showed that mothers with HTN problems who were younger – <25 years old – had preterm births with low birth weight and low Apgar scores, among other things. In addition, a reduced placental weight incidence was noted, which might have a negative impact on the fetus's growth and development and lead to IUGR. According to research by Akbar et al.,[17] neonates primarily had preterm-related issues when their mothers had severe preeclampsia.

The pathogenesis of hypertensive illness is significantly influenced by maternal characteristics, such as maternal age. It has been shown that moms under the age of 25 years are more prone than mothers between the ages of 26 and 30 years to suffer from HTN problems. Women from rural areas showed a greater prevalence of HTN disorders during pregnancy as compared to moms in urban areas. According to Panda et al.,[13] maternal mortality was observed among women from lower and middle-class socioeconomic backgrounds as well as among women older than 35 years. Preeclampsia has long been considered an illness of primiparity. Accordingly, the majority of the moms were anemic or undernourished and belonged to lower socioeconomic classes.

Primi mothers have a 44.18% higher prevalence of hypertensive disease pathology. According to Shruthi and Thenmozhi,[18] 60.7% of the moms with HTN were primigravida. The majority of them did not finish high school and did not get routine prenatal care due to a lack of access to health centers' factors.

Results inferred that HDP is associated with a greater threat of poor perinatal outcomes regardless of where the women live. Women with Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), preeclampsia, and eclampsia had 53.18% emergency cesarean section and have premature babies with low birth weight. When compared with all labor, 39.3% had a lower-segment cesarean section as the mode of delivery reported by Shruthi and Thenmozhi.[18] A similar finding was reported by Levine et al.,[19] in which the abdominal route (including Lower segment Caesarian -Section (LSCS) and hysterectomy) is the common method of termination of pregnancy with a slightly higher incidence rate than our study (65.6%).

Patients with a poor knowledge level are more likely to have a high incidence of severe chronic hypertension , superimposed preeclampsia, and eclampsia in this series, according to Indonesian research.[19] These findings demonstrated that a lack of awareness as well as a healthy lifestyle has a crucial role in the development of HTN problems during pregnancy. These disparities might be caused by socioeconomic level, racial factors, and other demographic factors such as parity and age.

Women who acquire hypertensive issues early in pregnancy, according to prior research, are difficult to control. The potential advantage of delayed delivery in terms of greater fetal maturity must be weighed against the danger of hypoxia and severe growth limitation.[1] To enhance the result, it suggests that mothers with HTN problems should be properly counseled and managed with suitable neonatal critical care facilities.

When summing up the maternal parameters such as maternal age, area of residence, obstetric care, monthly saving, religion, and type of family plays a vital role in one pregnancy and significantly affects its outcome. These variables are mostly preventable if there is improved knowledge of routine antenatal follow-up, prompt identification, and referral so that essential intervention may be carried out at the right time to avoid fetal and maternal health disasters.

Recommendations

Pregnancy is an opportunistic time for health-care providers to promote positive health activities, thus optimizing the health of pregnant women with potential short- and long-term benefits for both mother and child. Physical exercise during pregnancy could prevent excessive gestational weight gain, promote insulin sensitivity, and reduce systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, leading to improved endothelial function, as well as promoting placental angiogenesis, factors that lower the risks of developing Pre eclampsia (PE) during pregnancy.[20],[21]


  Conclusion Top


One of the major factors of maternal and neonatal mortality is HTN during pregnancy. Despite having all of the resources and several government programs in both urban and rural areas, many women suffer from HDP in both locations (rural and urban). This condition affects all women, from illiterate to literate, regardless of where they live. We must prioritize excellent prenatal care and offer enough health education, registration of all pregnant women, early diagnosis of high-risk pregnancies, and effective and prompt management to reduce maternal, fetal, and perinatal fatalities.

Limitations

The study had certain limitations as it was a hospital-based study; hence, the results of the study could be generalized to hospitals only. For the community, a further community-based study should be done using a larger sample size.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Lakshmikanth J, Ashoka C, Rani SU. A clinical study of neonatal outcome in pregnancy-induced hypertension. Indian J Child Health 2019;6:452-4.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Hypertension in pregnancy. Report of the American College of obstetricians and gynecologists' task force on hypertension in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2013;122:1122-31.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Redman CW. Hypertension in pregnancy: The NICE guidelines. Heart 2011;97:1967-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Kimberlin DF, Hauth JC, Owen J, Bottoms SF, Iams JD, Mercer BM, et al. Indicated versus spontaneous preterm delivery: An evaluation of neonatal morbidity among infants weighing </=1000 grams at birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;180:683-9.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Ngoc NT, Merialdi M, Abdel-Aleem H, Carroli G, Purwar M, Zavaleta N, et al. Causes of stillbirths and early neonatal deaths: Data from 7993 pregnancies in six developing countries. Bull World Health Organ 2006;84:699-705.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Duley L. The global impact of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Semin Perinatol 2009;33:130-7.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Singh AC, Rana SS. Fetal outcome in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Med J Shree Birendra Hosp 2013;12: 8-10.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Sharma C, Gupta S, Tyagi M, Mani P, Dhingra J. Maternal & perinatal outcome in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in a tertiary care hospital in Northern India. Obstet Gynecol Int J 2017;6:170-174.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Kodkany BS, Derman RJ, Honnungar NV, Tyagi NK, Goudar SS, Mastiholi SC, et al. Establishment of a maternal newborn health registry in the Belgaum district of Karnataka, India. Reprod Health 2015;12 Suppl 2:S3.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Bellad MB, Vidler M, Honnungar NV, Mallapur A, Ramadurg U, Charanthimath U, et al. Maternal and newborn health in Karnataka State, India: The community level interventions for pre-eclampsia (CLIP) trial's baseline study results. PLoS One 2017;12:e0166623.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Mehta B, Kumar V, Chawla S, Sachdeva S, Mahopatra D. Hypertension in pregnancy: A community-based study. Indian J Community Med 2015;40:273-8.  Back to cited text no. 11
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
12.
Subki AH, Algethami MR, Baabdullah WM, Alnefaie MN, Alzanbagi MA, Alsolami RM, et al. Prevalence, risk factors, and fetal and maternal outcomes of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: A retrospective study in Western Saudi Arabia. Oman Med J 2018;33:409-15.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Panda S, Das R, Sharma N, Das A, Deb P, Singh K. Maternal and perinatal outcomes in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and factors influencing it: A prospective hospital-based study in Northeast India. Cureus 2021;13:e13982.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Endeshaw G, Berhan Y. Perinatal outcome in women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: A retrospective cohort study. Int Sch Res Notices 2015;2015:208043.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Cincotta RB, Brennecke SP. Family history of pre-eclampsia as a predictor for pre-eclampsia in primigravidas. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1998;60:23-7.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Chhabra S, Gandhi D. Prediction of pregnancy-induced hypertension/pre-eclampsia by detecting microalbuminuria. J Obstet Gynecol India 2002;52:56-60.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Akbar MI, Adibrata MA, Aditiawarman, Aryananda RA, Angsar MD, Dekker G. Maternal and perinatal outcome related to severity of chronic hypertension in pregnancy. Pregnancy Hypertens 2019;16:154-60.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Shruthi S, Thenmozhi G. Maternal and perinatal outcome in pregnant women with hypertensive disorders: A population-based study. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2020;9:194-200.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Savage AR, Hoho L. Knowledge of pre-eclampsia in women living in Makole Ward, Dodoma, Tanzania. Afr Health Sci 2016;16:412-9.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Kasawara KT, do Nascimento SL, Costa ML, Surita FG, e Silva JL. Exercise and physical activity in the prevention of pre-eclampsia: Systematic review. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2012;91:1147-57.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Zhu Z, Xie H, Liu S, Yang R, Yu J, Yan Y, et al. Effects of physical exercise on blood pressure during pregnancy. BMC Public Health 2022;22:1733.  Back to cited text no. 21
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

Top
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Subjects and Methods
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
References
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed80    
    Printed0    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded5    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal