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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 109-113

Impact of menstrual cycle phases on the selected physiological parameters and skill-related components


Department of Exercise Physiology, Lakshmibai National Institute of Physical Education, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India

Date of Submission23-Apr-2022
Date of Decision08-Aug-2022
Date of Acceptance06-Dec-2022
Date of Web Publication19-Jan-2023

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Tanu Shree Yadav
Department of Exercise Physiology, Lakshmibai National Institute of Physical Education, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijptr.ijptr_68_22

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  Abstract 


Context: Numerous researches have been conducted to investigate the changes in various types of physical and physiological profiles in the menstrual cycle, but the results have been inconsistent and conflicting. Researchers also noticed that studies have not focused on athletes who participate in sports dominated by speed endurance specifically.
Aims: The intent of the study was to analyze the physiological parameters and skill°related components during the various stages of the menstrual cycle, namely, menstrual, follicular, ovulation, and luteal phases.
Settings and Design: Randomized clinical trial conducted on female athletes from Gwalior.
Methods and Material: Data were collected on 20 randomly selected female athletes from LNIPE, Gwalior, who are having a regular menstrual cycle. Vital capacity, VO2 max, 50°m sprint, and 12°min run/walk test were measured in each phase using appropriate tests and equipment.
Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA at a 0.05 level of significance with SPSS 20.
Results: The results of the study showed a significant difference in the vital capacity during the luteal phase, while no significant difference was observed in VO2 max during all the four phases. The finding for skill related components, namely, speed and endurance, also shows a significant difference in the follicular phase
Conclusions: The study may conclude that variations in physiological parameters and skill related components are observed during the various stages of the menstrual cycle.

Keywords: Follicular, Luteal, Menstrual, Ovulation, Physical, Physiological


How to cite this article:
Yadav TS, Pandey G. Impact of menstrual cycle phases on the selected physiological parameters and skill-related components. Indian J Phys Ther Res 2022;4:109-13

How to cite this URL:
Yadav TS, Pandey G. Impact of menstrual cycle phases on the selected physiological parameters and skill-related components. Indian J Phys Ther Res [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Feb 1];4:109-13. Available from: https://www.ijptr.org/text.asp?2022/4/2/109/368060




  Introduction Top


The menstrual cycle, accompanying hormonal variations, and many aspects/markers of health, well-being, and athletic performance all have complex interactions.[1],[2],[3],[4] It has long been documented in the general population that the menstrual cycle and its related physical and physiological symptoms can frequently have a negative impact on daily life and activities[5],[6],[7],[8] Furthermore, Bruinvels et al. discovered that half of the top British female runners and rowers (n = 90) believed their menstrual cycle had an influence on their training and athletic performance.[9]

Menstruation in female athletes can cause a variety of physiological issues as well as a decrease in performance during training or competition. Several academics have sought to shed light on the influence of menstruation on performance, but no definitive evidence about whether there was a detrimental or positive effect has been discovered.[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16]

Others believe that menstruation and sporting activities are intertwined, and that exceptional sporting feats have occurred throughout each phase of a woman's menstrual cycle.[17],[18],[19] Furthermore, it has been discovered that the performance is better during the early luteal phase. Finally, other studies found that the best performance values were obtained during the ovulation and menstruation phases, while the worst performance values were obtained during the premenstruation period.[20],[21]

Researches conducted in the field of the menstrual cycle focusing on the athletic population are not much, and those conducted have not considered all physical and physiological elements. Furthermore, numerous researches have been conducted to investigate the changes in various types of physical and physiological profiles in the menstrual cycle, but the results have been inconsistent and conflicting. Researchers also noticed that studies have not focused on athletes who participate in sports dominated by speed endurance specifically. In this regard, the purpose of this article was to look at the impact of the menstruation cycle phases on a sportive performance of speed endurance female athletes.


  Subjects and Methods Top


Selection of subjects

The current study was conducted on 20 young female athletes of LNIPE, Gwalior. The age ranged between 18 and 25 years having a regular menstrual cycle of 28–30 days.

Data collection

Researchers took the record of the previous menstrual cycle by the help of Flo app. Data collection was done in two shifts, the morning shift after breakfast at 11 a.m. in the physiology laboratory of LNIPE, Gwalior, and the second shift at 4 p.m. in 400-m track of LNIPE, Gwalior. Participants were instructed to visit the physiology laboratory and 400-m track during each phase of the menstrual cycle, i.e., 1–2nd days of the menstrual phase, 8th–10th days of the follicular phase (PP), 14th–16 days of the ovulation phase, and 21st–24nd days of the luteal phase. During each visit, the data were collected on the selected physiological parameters, namely, VO2 max and vital capacity, and on skill-related components on speed and endurance. The study's goal and procedures were properly described to all of them to get their full participation, and their calm mental state was required for suitable findings. The vital capacity was measured using a digital spirometer, and VO2 max was assessed using the Queen's college step test. To measure the selected skill-related components, speed was determined by 50-m sprint test, and endurance was determined by Cooper 12-min walk/run test.

Statistical analysis

The mean values for all the four phases of the menstrual cycle were used in the Analysis shown in [Table 2]. Comparisons between the mean value of VO2 max, vital capacity, speed, and endurance during all the four phases of the menstrual cycle were analyzed using the repeated measures analysis of variance with the help of IBM Corp. Released 2011. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.
Table 1: The Shapiro-Wilk test for normality data

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Table 2: The mean and standard deviation of the physiological and physical variables in different phases of the menstrual cycle

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  Results Top


All of the assumptions were tested to meet the objectives, and none of them were violated. The outcome of the Shapiro–Wilk test [Table 1] was used to ensure that the data were normal P < 0.05 was deemed significant.

As per the outcome shown in [Table 3], there is a significant difference in the vital capacity level between the menstrual and other three phases (P = 0.000); likewise, a significant difference was found in the menstrual phase and luteal phase (P = 0.000), while no significant difference exists between the follicular and ovulation phases (P = 1.00), and in the follicular phase and luteal phase (P = 1.00).
Table 3: Pair-wise comparison of the vital capacity in different phases of the menstrual cycle

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As per the results shown in [Table 4], there is no significant difference in the VO 2 max level.
Table 4: Pair-wise comparison of VO2 max in different phases of the menstrual cycle

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As per the results shown in [Table 5], there is a significant difference in the speed performance level between the menstrual and follicular and ovulation phases (P = 0.000); likewise, a significant difference was found in the follicular phase and luteal phase, and the ovulation phase and luteal phase (P = 0.000), while no difference exists between the mensuration time and the luteal time (P = 1.000) and in the follicular phase and ovulation phase (P = 1.000).
Table 5: Pair-wise comparison of speed in different phases of the menstrual cycle

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As per the results shown in [Table 6], there is a significant difference in the endurance performance level between the menstrual, follicular, ovulation, and luteal phases (P = 0.000); likewise, a significant difference was found when comparing the follicular phase to the mensuration phase (P = 0.000), while no difference exists between the follicular time and the ovulation time (P = 1.000), and in the ovulation phase and luteal phase (P = 1.000).
Table 6: Pair-wise comparison of endurance in different phases of the menstrual cycle

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  Discussion Top


This study aimed to determine the changes in the physical and physiological characteristics at various stages of the menstrual cycle in female athletes. In the present study, the results showed that the mean values of VC, VO2 max, speed, and endurance significantly increased during the luteal time as compared to the menstrual time, follicular time, and ovulation time.

When comparing the vital capacity in all the four stages among the various phases, the findings revealed that there is a significant difference in the vital capacity level between the menstrual and luteal phases, while no significant difference exists between any other phases on the cycle. The vital capacity significantly increased in the luteal phase. However, there was no further increase in the VC levels during the other three phases. The majority of researches show that the VC rises throughout the luteal phase. In their investigations, Dimple et al., Kavita et al.[23] discovered that the mean value of VC was greater in the secretory (luteal) phase and lower in the menstrual phase. Manna et al., [24] Elena Saprova et al[25] discovered comparable findings. They speculated that because progesterone is a smooth muscle relaxant, it may induce bronchodilation. Beynon et al. investigated the impact of progesterone on asthmatic patients. They discovered that the low levels of progesterone in the premenstrual period might produce a relative decrease in the lung volume and capacity values. Nandhini R et al.[26] discovered that the pulmonary parameters were greater during the luteal phase. They also proposed a possible explanation for the varying amounts of sex hormones in blood or mediators that circulate in the blood.[12]

Similarly, on the basis of a statistical comparison of VO2 max throughout all the stages, the result revealed that in all the four stages, there were no significant changes in VO2 max. As a result, the favorable impact of estrogen during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle has no influence on VO2 max. The key hormones during the luteal phase are estrogen and progesterone. Thus, in untrained athletes, this has been proven to be important, particularly in those who have subjective dyspnea, but in trained athletes, there is no link between the ventilation and progesterone levels.[20] The net impact of estrogen and progesterone on VO2 max as evaluated by the Astrand nomogram throughout the follicular, luteal, and menstrual phases was not statistically significant in the current research. Our findings are comparable with those who found no statistically significant differences in VO2 max during the various periods of the menstrual cycle. Our findings are similarly comparable with the findings of Teresa M. Dean et al.,[22] who found that the shifting sex steroid levels observed throughout the normal menstrual cycle have no effect on VO2 max, maximum heart rate, and other measures of cardiorespiratory fitness. When comparing the speed performance in the four phases of the mensuration cycle, the result revealed that there is a significant difference in the speed performance level between the menstrual, follicular, and ovulation phases; likewise, a significant difference was found in the follicular phase and luteal phase, and in the ovulation phase and luteal phase, while no significant difference exists between the mensuration phase and the luteal phase and in the follicular phase and ovulation phase. Indeed, the past research has shown that the physical exercise can improve information processing speed and interference management, particularly in the early stages of the neurocognitive development.[12],[13]


  Conclusion Top


As a result of the findings of this study, practitioners should maintain the menstrual cycle phase while performing the routine physical examinations with their athletes to verify that the changes in performance are consistent with the outcome and not due to the menstrual cycle effects. Alternatively, the cycle phase should be noted and taken into account when evaluating the data. These differences should be taken into consideration while constructing the optimum program in terms of intensity, repetitions, and length of workouts for each period of the menstrual cycle.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

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Nandhini R., Subhashini A.S.variation in the Pulmonary Functions with the Phases of the Menstrual Cycle in Adolescent Females. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2012 April, Vol-6(2): 173-175.  Back to cited text no. 26
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]



 

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