• Users Online: 623
  • Print this page
  • Email this page


 
 
Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 76-82

Students perception on resumption of offline classes during the pandemic using college reopening survey questionnaire


Department of Neurology Physiotherapy, KAHER Institute of Physiotherapy, Belagavi, Karnataka, India

Date of Submission15-Feb-2021
Date of Decision16-Oct-2021
Date of Acceptance20-Dec-2021
Date of Web Publication12-Jan-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Jeba Chitra
Professor, Dept. of Neurology Physiotherapy, KAHER Institute of Physiotherapy, Nehru Nagar, Belagavi - 590010, Karnataka
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijptr.ijptr_2_21

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Context: Due to the CoronaVirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, educational institutions in India have been considering various online methods as part of teaching and learning. When the guidelines to resume offline classes were issued by the government, it was an uphill task in maintaining the course delivery while ensuring the safety of the students and faculty. This was associated with different perceptions and opinions toward the reopening of the colleges of students and parents.
Aims: To assess student's perception on resuming offline classes among the pandemic using college reopening survey questionnaire.
Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was done on undergraduate students from the Health Science University of Belagavi, Karnataka.
Subjects and Methods: An Internet-Based Survey of undergraduate students was undertaken. A college reopening survey questionnaire which comprised 13 questions, was developed and e-mailed to 401 health science students using Google Forms to assess student's perception on resumption of offline classes among the pandemic. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire were also studied.
Statistical Analysis Used: The perception was assessed as frequency, percentage of responses in addition to Cronbach's alpha values for validity and reliability of the questionnaire.
Results: The study showed favorable perception of 80% of students favoring to resume offline classes in the situation of the pandemic, which was consistent across the genders, year of education, and course. The score for reliability and validity was 0.803, which is statistically excellent.
Conclusions: Students showed favorable perceptions on resuming offline classes among the pandemic.

Keywords: COVID-19, Offline classes, Pandemic, Perception, Reliability, Students, Validity


How to cite this article:
Chitra J, Anoop A, Haldankar A. Students perception on resumption of offline classes during the pandemic using college reopening survey questionnaire. Indian J Phys Ther Res 2021;3:76-82

How to cite this URL:
Chitra J, Anoop A, Haldankar A. Students perception on resumption of offline classes during the pandemic using college reopening survey questionnaire. Indian J Phys Ther Res [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Jan 25];3:76-82. Available from: https://www.ijptr.org/text.asp?2021/3/2/76/335661




  Introduction Top


The novel CoronaVirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, was declared a Pandemic by the WHO on March 11, 2020.[1] Due to this outbreak, social distancing and lockdown rules were employed in India.[2] The unpreceded and prolonged school closure aimed at keeping students safe are harming them in other ways, the educational sector being affected adversely.[3],[4] The conventional teaching method consisting of a teacher imparting knowledge to students at the same time and place in the preInternet era was more effective.[5] With the closure of schools and educational institutions, academic activities were disrupted and it had become imperative to continue the educational process using technology and other available resources.[6]

UNESCO had recommended the use of distance learning programs and open educational applications and platforms to prevent disruption of active teaching and learning, which was encouraged and adopted by the Indian Government.[7] Majority of schools, colleges, and universities migrated to online teaching-learning to maintain steadiness in the absence of in-person teaching.[8] Online learning, unlike conventional learning, does not have time and space limitations and varies greatly in terms of web-based practices and audience.[5] Some factors create barriers for online learning, such as administrative issues, academic skills, technical skills, learner motivation, technical problems, cost, and access to Internet.[9] Online learning is the new normal, transforming the previous century's old chalk and board method.[10] The more recent study suggested that the total effects of online learning were minimal and showed noteworthy differences when compared to offline learning.[5]

During the lockdown period, many learners in India were suffering from stress, depression, and anxiety.[11] In addition, they may be facing increased mental stress due to the uncertainties, namely their postponed examination, upcoming internship, admission to higher courses, placements, etc.[12] Around the world, schools and colleges have been reopening their Institutions with caution following strict physical distancing and hygiene measures. In December 2020, the Karnataka government allowed reopening at the university level. A survey on college students in the USA was conducted to understand student's perception on college reopening.[13] This study concluded that <50% of the students felt unsafe returning to college, but the items in the questionnaire are suitable for the American educational system and no such study was undertaken in the Indian scenario. On returning to college during the pandemic, students are keen on infection prevention and strategies put in place by institution management, fumigation of college facilities, provision of masks, sanitizers, and handwashing points were identified as key measures to be implemented for the safety of the students.[14] This scenario is different for undergraduate and postgraduate for the sole reason that the perspective of the former differs from the latter as the postgraduates are self-motivated and have clinical practice-oriented learning. Despite all these measures, the students have mixed feelings on offline teaching and learning, and the sense of apprehension may be more in some than others. Hence, this questionnaire is designed to assess student's perception on the resumption of offline classes among the pandemic.


  Subjects and Methods Top


The data were collected through a cross-sectional web-based survey. The estimated sample was a minimum of 390 using Yamane's formula for sample size determination based on finite population. Permission was taken from the heads of six health science Institutions affiliated with a University located in Belagavi city. Students were enrolled in the study after authorization was given, and an online survey form was issued.

Development and validity of the college reopening survey questionnaire

Through random allocation, 20 students were included for the pilot testing of the questionnaire. The email ids of the concerning students were taken and Google form was sent to them. In the form, the purpose of the study was explained to the participants and consent was taken before the completion of the questionnaire. Initially, a 17-item questionnaire was pilot tested and items were adjusted to enhance its efficiency. To assess the content validity and reliability of the questionnaire, item-total correlation and Cronbach's alpha values were analyzed using 20 students. Three questions with low correlation and one with negative (−0.492) correlation were eliminated for better validity of the questionnaire. The remaining 13 statements indicated medium-to-strong correlation in which all statements have recorded correlation value >0.30, which is a standard for validation. Since the reliability and validity tests indicated significant outcomes, it was evident that the data set has been normally distributed and could be used for testing purposes. Out of the 13 items, 11 questions were regarding preparing to return and two questions on social and emotional well-being, which approximately took 8 min to be filled out. Each item consisted of 4 options, the score of each item ranged from 1 to 4. The obtained scores were then added and further evaluated [ANNEXURE].

Assessments of perception of students

Class representatives' contact information from 1st to 4th years was collected from each component college's office, and an electronic link was issued to the representatives to distribute to their batchmates. The link was distributed to 600 undergraduate students, ranging from first to 4th year. A total of 401 replies (66.8%) were received.


  Results Top


The data of the present study were analyzed using SPSS version 22.0 (SPSS for windows, Armonk, NY: IBM corp., USA). The analyses included descriptive statistics and cross-tabulation. The survey included 401 undergraduate students (71% females and 29% males). As shown in [Table 1], the sociodemographic distribution of participants suggests that the percentage of student participation was higher among 1st-year health-care students. Item-total correlation and Cronbach's alpha values were analyzed to assess the reliability and validity of the questionnaire and it was observed that total Cronbach's alpha was scored at 0.803, which is statistically excellent [Table 2]a.
Table 1: Sociodemographic distribution of health science students

Click here to view
Table 2:

Click here to view


[Table 2]b demonstrates that, with the exception of three questions, the t-test is significant in majority of the items, and respondents had a positive opinion on preparation for return to college or offline class sessions, with one question showing a negative correlation. To improve the Questionnaire's validity, the three questions with low correlation and one with a negative (−0.492) correlation were deleted. Of the total 16 questions that were initially present, 13 questions claim to have a medium-to-strong relationship having a correlation value of >0.30, which is considered a validation benchmark. Student's perception was examined in two areas such as preparing for the return to college and social and emotional well-being. [Table 3] shows that 62.1% and 21.9% of students felt slightly or no issues in return to college, whereas 13.7% and 2.2% of students were either somewhat or extremely worried about joining back.
Table 3: Perception about preparing for return to college

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


The purpose of this study was to assess student's perception through the College Re-opening Survey Questionnaire on the resumption of offline classes amid the COVID-19 pandemic. It has become evident that the impact of COVID-19 will be experienced on an extensive level.[15] From replacement of in-person teaching to online teaching, cancellation of conference presentations, internships; these are serious threat to students of health care professional courses which must be resolved. The unprecedented use of Internet to deliver education has brought both challenges and opportunities.[16] Challenges faced by students include time management skills, reliable Internet connectivity, and technological preparedness.[17]

The present research analysis revealed that more than 80% of students (62.1% slightly; 21.9% not at all worried) favored return to college. Major reasons for which could be technical, infrastructure resources, financial, institutional, and educator barriers, as stated by a study on distance learning in clinical medical education among the COVID-19 pandemic.[18] A previous study on students' perception revealed that students still preferred traditional face-to-face learning methods for a more effective learning.[19] Another reason for attending offline lectures could be attributed to lack of satisfaction and enthusiasm during E-learning, as stated in a study on students' perception of offline learning during the COVID-19 pandemic.[20] Dental student's perception, attitude, and readiness toward online learning in Saudi Arabia revealed that the students preferred using online tools for personal use rather than for learning purposes.[21] Furthermore, it can be a frustrating situation for students, as the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated college students mental health negatively along with other health concerns.[20],[22]A study in 2004 to know whether e-learning can replace traditional classroom teaching revealed that e-learning is not suitable for all the students and will not be able to replace traditional classroom teaching.[21]

An incidental finding in the present study reported that 3.18% of female students were not prepared when compared to male students. The major reason for this could be that females reported higher levels of anxiety than their male counterparts.[23],[24],[25] The current study revealed differences in opinions of female students in terms of the preferred mode of education. This can be attributed to the evidence that when it comes to education, the female population tends to show greater diversity.[26]

A review on the benefits and limitations of online learning presented technical delays as a burden to students studying online.[27] Another probable reason for wanting in-person classes could be that all students are not well versed with technology. Critical literature review on e-learning limitations reported that students should be Information and Communication Technology savvy for e-learning.[28] Learning online may cause students to feel lonely and apprehensive as it is devoid of physical interaction.[29],[30],[31] Students may also be apprehensive to learn practical content online; hence, they wish to attend offline classes as hands-on practical sessions cannot be fully replaced with online learning and teaching aids.[32] Overall, only 2.2% of students were extremely unprepared to return to college. This could be because they find e-learning to be as effective as the traditional method, as stated in a systematic review evaluating the impact of online or blended learning versus face-to-face learning of clinical skills.[33] The questionnaire used in the present study consists of health science profession-related questions, hence has limited applicability to other professions. The study is conducted in view of the COVID-19 pandemic on the student population attending online classes in health-care institutes; therefore, its applicability may be limited to e-learning during other situations/conditions.


  Conclusions Top


The study showed favorable perception to resume offline classes in the situation of the pandemic, which was consistent across the year of education and course. Students favored the resumption of offline classes over e-learning methods among the pandemic.


  Annexure: College Reopening Survey Questionnaire Top


Instruction: This questionnaire has 2 parts and 13 questions. It is mandatory to attempt all the questions.

Scoring: Each option has scores as follows:

Option A: 4

Option B: 3

Option C: 2

Option D: 1

[A] PREPARING FOR RETURN TO COLLEGE

1] Assuming appropriate safety measures are in place, which type of learning would you prefer?

a) Offline learning

b) A mix of offline and online learning

c) Online learning

d) Self learning

2] Are you scared to return to college during this pandemic?

a) Not at all

b) Slightly

c) Somewhat

d) Extremely

3] As the offline learning resumes how comfortable are you in returning to the college?

a) Extremely comfortable

b) Somewhat comfortable

c) Slightly comfortable

d) Not at all comfortable

4] Considering college follows proper unlock protocol of social distancing and strict hygienic measures, how safe do you feel returning to college?

a) Extremely

b) Somewhat

c) Slightly

d) Not at all

5] Are you scared to go to the hospital to resume patient-based learning in spite of proper measures?

a) Not at all

b) Slightly

c) Somewhat

d) Extremely

6] How content are you learning patient-based teachings online?

a) Not at all

b) Slightly

c) Somewhat

d) Extremely

7] Once the offline classes begin how concerned are you about your health?

a) Not at all

b) Slightly

c) Somewhat

d) Extremely

8] How doubtful are you regarding your college's health care facility?

a) Not at all

b) Slightly

c) Somewhat

d) Extremely

9] How concerned are you regarding your peers following social distancing measures?

a) Not at all

b) Slightly

c) Somewhat

d) Extremely

10] Considering proper social distancing measures are in place, how concerned are you regarding offline practical classes?

a) Not at all

b) Slightly

c) Somewhat

d) Extremely

11] How comfortable are you sharing room with roommates /siblings/parents once college resumes?

a) Extremely

b) Somewhat

c) Slightly

d) Not at all

[B]SOCIAL EMOTIONAL WELL-BEING

12] How concerned are you attending offline lectures with a staff/student who were previously COVID positive and now have recovered?

a) Not at all

b) Slightly

c) Somewhat

d) Extremely

13] How concerned are you attending a staff's offline lecture who is posted in COVID wards?

a) Not at all

b) Slightly

c) Somewhat

d) Extremely

TOTAL SCORING-52

For scoring, total scores will be added and interpretation will be as follows:

  • 40-52: Extremely ready to join the offline classes
  • 27-39: Mostly ready to join the offline classes
  • 13-26: Slightly confused regarding the offline classes
  • <13: Not at all ready to join the offline classes




 
  References Top

1.
Dashraath P, Wong JL, Lim MX, Lim LM, Li S, Biswas A, et al. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2020;222:521-31.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Ghosh A, Nundy S, Mallick TK. How India is dealing with COVID-19 pandemic. Sens Int 2020;1:100021.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Kujur SK, Goswami D. COVID-19: Severity of the pandemic and responses of Indian states. J Public Affairs. 2020;20:e2362. [doi: 10.1002/pa.2362].  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Jena PK. Impact of COVID-19 on higher education in India. International Journal of Advanced Education and Research 2020;5:77-81.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Pei L, Wu H. Does online learning work better than offline learning in undergraduate medical education? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Med Educ Online. 2019;24:1666538. [doi: 10.1080/10872981.2019.1666538].  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Drane CF, Vernon L, O'Shea S. Vulnerable learners in the age of COVID-19: A scoping review. Aust Educ Res 2021;48;585-604. [doi: 10.1007/s13384-020-00409-5].  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
UNESCO's Support: Educational Response to COVID-19. UNESCO; 2020. Available from: https://en.unesco.org/covid19/educationresponse/support. [Last accessed on 2020 Nov 18].  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Dhawan S. Online Learning: A panacea in the time of COVID-19 crisis. J Educ Technol Syst 2020;49:5-22. [doi: 10.1177/0047239520934018].  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Muilenburga LY, Bergeb ZL. Student barriers to online learning: A factor analytic study. Distance Educ 2005;26:29-48.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Muttappallymyalil J, Mendis S, John LJ, Shanthakumari N, Sreedharan J, Shaikh RB. Evolution of technology in teaching: Blackboard and beyond in Medical Education. Nepal J Epidemiol 2016;6:588-92.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Rehman U, Shahnawaz MG, Khan NH, Kharshiing KD, Khursheed M, Gupta K, et al. Depression, anxiety and stress among Indians in times of COVID-19 lockdown. Community Ment Health J 2021;57:42-8.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Khattar A, Jain P, Quadri S. Effects of the disastrous pandemic COVID 19 on learning styles, activities and mental health of young Indian students – A machine learning approach. Proceedings article: 4th International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems (ICICCS) 2020. [doi: 10.1109/ICICCS48265.2020.9120955].  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Zaman N. 31% of College Students Don't Feel Safe Returning to Campus. ValuePenguin; 2020. Available from: https://www.valuepenguin.com/nearly-one-third-students-feel-unsafe-returning-to-campus. [[Last accessed on 2020 Dec 24].  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Barawa W, Ogendo M, Nchogu R, Mwende R, Mramba C, Mutonga D, et al. College conversion into quarantine center: Student's perception on COVID-19 mitigation measures at Kenya medical training college Mombasa. Int J Health Med Nurs Pract 2020;2:1-10.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Ferrel MN, Ryan JJ. The impact of COVID-19 on medical education. Cureus J Med Sci 2020;12:e7492.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Gaur U, Majumder MA, Sa B, Sarkar S, Williams A, Singh K. Challenges and opportunities of preclinical medical education: COVID-19 crisis and beyond. SN Compr Clin Med 2020;1-6. [doi: 10.1007/s42399-020-00528-1]. [Epub ahead of print].  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Almaiah MA, Al-Khasawneh A, Althunibat A. Exploring the critical challenges and factors influencing the E-learning system usage during COVID-19 pandemic. Educ Inf Technol (Dordr) 2020;25:5261-80. [doi: 10.1007/s10639-020-10219-y].  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Al-Balas M, Al-Balas HI, Jaber HM, Obeidat K, Al-Balas H, Aborajooh EA, et al. Distance learning in clinical medical education amid COVID-19 pandemic in Jordan: Current situation, challenges, and perspectives. BMC Med Educ 2020;20:341.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Athirah Shukri A, Nordin L, MohdSalleh FI, Raidzwan SN, Ahmad R. Unikl students' perception on synchronous learning using ict as learning tools to learn english. J Crit Rev 2020;7:793-6.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Agung AS, Surtikanti MW, Quinones CA. Students' perception of online learning during COVID-19 pandemic: A case study on the english students of STKIP pamanetalino. J Soc Sci Hum 2020;10:225-35.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Linjawi AI, Alfadda LS. Students' perception, attitudes, and readiness toward online learning in dental education in Saudi Arabia: A cohort study. Adv Med Educ Pract 2018;9:855-63.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Kecojevic A, Basch CH, Sullivan M, Davi NK. The impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on mental health of undergraduate students in New Jersey, cross-sectional study. PLoS One 2020;15:e0239696.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Zalta AK, Chambless DL. Understanding gender differences in anxiety: The mediating effects of instrumentality and mastery. Psychol Women Q 2012;36:488-99.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Colbert-Getz JM, Fleishman C, Jung J, Shilkofski N. How do gender and anxiety affect students' self-assessment and actual performance on a high-stakes clinical skills examination? Acad Med 2013;88:44-8. [doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e318276bcc4].  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Doyal L. Sex, gender, and health: The need for a new approach. BMJ 2001;323:1061-3.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Slater JA, Lujan HL, DiCarlo SE. Does gender influence learning style preferences of first-year medical students? Adv Physiol Educ 2007;31:336-42.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Appana S. A review of benefits and limitations of online learning in the context of the student, the instructor, and the tenured faculty. Int J E learn 2008;7:5-22.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Wong D. A critical literature review on e-learning limitations. JASA 2007;2:55-6.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Rovai AP, Jordan HM. Belnded learning and sense of community: A comparative analysis with traditional and fully online graduate courses. Int Rev Res Open Distance Learn 2004;5. [doi: 10.19173/irrodl.v5i2.192].  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Grooms LD. Computer mediated communication: A vehicle for learning. Int Rev Res Open Distance Learn 2003;4:1-16. [doi: 10.19173/irrodl.v4i2.148].  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Evans JR, Haase IM. Online business education in the twenty first century; An analysis of potential target markets, Internet Research: Networking applications and policies. Internet Research 2001;11:246-60. [doi: 10.1108/10662240110396432].  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Mehdar KM. Student's attitudes as regard to distance learning of anatomy courses throughout COVID-19 pandemic lockdown period among medicine and paramedical faculties of Najran University, Saudi Arabia. Univ J Educ Res 2020;8:6166-72.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
McCutcheon K, Lohan M, Traynor M, Martin D. A systematic review evaluating the impact of online or blended learning vs. face-to-face learning of clinical skills in undergraduate nurse education. J Adv Nurs 2015;71:255-70.  Back to cited text no. 33
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

Top
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Subjects and Methods
Results
Discussion
Conclusions
Annexure: Colleg...
References
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed168    
    Printed0    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded25    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal